Monday, August 24, 2020

A Digital Proof Write-up Essay Example for Free

A Digital Proof Write-up Essay The issue in A Digital Proof has two sections. The first is to fill in five boxes with numbers that fit the standards: each case has a number, and the digit that is put in each container must be the measure of times that number shows up in the entire five digit number shaped by the crates. The second piece of the issue is to demonstrate that there is just a single arrangement. How I approached taking care of this issue was to some degree straightforward; in any event, it was from the start. I began from the ‘four’ box (the fifth box, named with a four). I understood that four wouldn’t work in that crate, since that would imply that there were four fours, and that wouldn’t work. I couldn’t put three in the container, either, in light of the fact that that would require there to be three fours, and that wouldn’t turn out to be either. Two didn’t work for indistinguishable reasons from four and three, and even one wasn’t a chance. This left me with one alternative: zero. One box down, four to go. Simple, isn't that so? That’s what I thought as I filled in the ‘three’ box, again with a zero for similar reasons that I’d put a zero in the ‘four’ box. Four wouldn’t work since that would expect three to be in four boxes, and afterward that wouldn’t leave space for some other numbers. Once more, this was the explanation that three, two, and one didn’t work. For three, as well, the main chance was zero. As of not long ago, things had been genuinely clear. At that point, when I hit the ‘two’ box, things started to get progressively confounded. Here, I couldn’t put four or three since two of the cases had just been filled, and I couldn’t change that. At that point, I attempted two. This could work, however just if there was a two somewhere else. I couldn’t put a two in the ‘one’ box, yet I could place it in the zero box, due to the ‘four’ and ‘three’ boxes. Beneficial thing I didn’t change those. That left me with the ‘one’ box. There was extremely just a single alternative for that crate, and that was placing a one in it. That was my procedure for understanding the apparently overwhelming, however shockingly simple issue. I realize that 21200 is the main answer for this issue, on the grounds that subsequent to working it through intelligently, it becomes obvious that no other arrangement of numbers would work in this issue. While I found the issue much less troublesome than I had foreseen, that isn’t to state that it was a simple task. It truly constrained me to think, which was helpful in light of the fact that a great deal of the time I attempt to maintain a strategic distance from things where I have to think too profoundly. Doing this issue constrains you to be trained and stay with the issue until it’s completed, and makes you really consider the issue cautiously, from each point. I imagine that on the off chance that I could change the issue, I would give all the more a rule with respect to how to approach taking care of the issue, since I was totally puzzled toward the start. Indeed, even this, however, I’m not so much sure about. I accept that making sense of a best approach at this issue was useful to me, and helped me get into the correct outlook to do the difficult right. I wouldn’t truly state that I appreciated dealing with this issue, yet it wasn’t shocki ng like I’d been anticipating that it should be. What's more, the issue was certainly hard. Not very hard, however difficult using any and all means. On the off chance that I needed to give myself an evaluation on this, I’d give myself An or B+. My procedure wasn’t the most one of a kind or intriguing, in light of the fact that I just went at it from back to front. I didn’t compose anything especially new or diverse in my review, however I put exertion in and I managed to complete the issue, and give sound thinking to back up my cases. Generally speaking, I feel this review is strong A-material

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Viola In 12 Night Essays - Theatre, Twelfth Night, Entertainment

Viola In 12 Night THE CHANGING ROLE IN VIOLA/CESARIO IN THE TWELFTH NIGHT In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, it is plainly clear that the variance in disposition to the double job and circumstance and tribulations forced upon the character of Viola/Cesario winds up in a superior comprehension of both genders, and consequently, permits Viola to have a superior comprehension for Orsino. Close to the opening of the play, when Viola is receiving her male personality, she makes another self, similar to two veils and may choose to wear either while swinging between the two characters in feeling and in character. She chooses to take on this personality since she has more opportunity in the public arena in her Cesario cover, which is clear when she is promptly acknowledged by Orsino, while, in her female character she would not be. Along these lines, a standard job in the public arena and to the standpoints of others is depicted. Orsino sees Cesario, as a youthful assistant simply beginning on the planet, much s uch as himself as a youthful, nimble fellow, so he tends to be all the more ready to empty onto her with his difficulties and distresses, looking for a partner with which to share and to instruct. Along these lines, Viola develops in her male camouflage to improve feeling for his internal identity, not the self that he shows to people in general, or would uncover and impart to Viola in her actual female self, but instead his mystery self, as he accepts he imparts to a friend. Along these lines, she develops to adore him. In any case, Orsino's inspiration is really not love for Viola, yet rather he is by all accounts in adoration with affection itself. His whole world is loaded up with adoration yet he realizes that there may be a defining moment for him, similar to when he says: If music be the food of affection, play on; give me overabundance of it, that, satiating, the hunger may sicken, thus kick the bucket. 1. (I,I,I-III) This statement shows that he realizes that he is so up to speed in adoration, that he trusts his craving for affection may stew when he takes beyond what he can deal with. 1. Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. Longman's Canada Limited, Don Mills, Ontario, 1961. Every resulting quote are from this release. Close to the finish of the play, when all stunts and injustices are uncovered and all covers are lifted, Orsino experiences passionate feelings for Viola. He initially pardons her/him of her/his obligation to him, the ace; at that point says that she will presently be her lord's escort: Your lord stops you; and for your administration done him, so much against the backbone of your sex, so far underneath your delicate and delicate reproducing, and since you call'd me ace for such a long time, here is my hand. You will from this time be your lord's special lady. (V,I,322-327) This is kind of an exchanging love as he suspected he was infatuated with Olivia in the first place, in any case, he promptly changes his affection to Viola, as he believes he realizes her character well. Concerning Viola, she pronounces her adoration for Orsino commonly, as though by saying that she would cherish him in the event that she were a woman. When Orsino first sends Cesario to go about as a delivery person and send Orsino's adoration to Olivia, Cesario declares: I'll put forth a valiant effort to charm your woman; [aside] yet, a barful hardship! Whoe'er I charm, myself would be his significant other. (I,IV, 40-42) This shows Viola recognizes what a troublesome circumstance that she is in, and that she may attempt to charm her out of adoring Orsino, with the goal that she may have him for herself; aside from there is a slight, startling spot of destiny... After Cesario leaves from Olivia's, she proclaims: What is your parentage? Over my fortunes, yet my state is well; I am a man of his word. I'll be sworn thou craftsmanship. Thy tongue, thy face, thy appendages, and soul, do give thee five-crease blazon. Not very quick: delicate, del icate! Except if the ace were the man. How now! Indeed, even so rapidly may one catch the plague? Methinks I feel this present youth's per-fections with an imperceptible and unpretentious secrecy to sneak in at mine eyes. All things considered, let it be. What ho, Malvolio! (I,V, 289-298) Olivia,

Saturday, July 25, 2020

Big News

Big News Ive been putting off writing this entry for a week, because I simply dont really know how to write it. There are so many things I want to say, and yet so many of them dont attach well to words only to strong feelings and emotions, the way certain songs bring back the intangible moments of ones childhood. I think Ill just start with the facts and save the long, introspective part for a later entry, once Ive had a chance to really process all of this. In a nutshell: after four incredible years here, Im going to be leaving MIT in July. Ill also be leaving Boston, which has been my home for more than a decade, and which will always be the city I love more than any other. Its a lot to digest, and its going to take some time. I guess you probably want to know the details. Im heading back to Oberlin, my alma mater, where Ive just been appointed Vice President for Communications Ill be overseeing communications strategy for the whole college. Those of you with whom Ive spoken about Oberlin know how deeply I love the place, and at this critical moment in its history, it needs me in many of the same ways that MIT did four years ago to help it tell its story to the world. Its a tremendous professional opportunity, but to me it feels more like a calling than a job. Nothing can lighten the sadness of leaving MIT. I may not be an alum, but I did spend four very intense years here. I may not have taken 8.02, but I also didnt get summers off the way you slackers do so lets just call it even. ;-) As Nance says, I may have been born into the Oberlin family and married into the MIT family, but one is no less significant than the other. So while I may be leaving MIT physically, Ill never leave MIT its too much a part of me. Ill just be more like an alum than a current student. One thing is certain: if I am invested in you and you know who you are no distance will ever change that. Ill still be checking up on you, keeping tabs, making sure youre getting the most out of your college experience, same as Ive always done. Thats a promise. Ill write a lot more over the next couple of months. Ill get all sorts of reflective and nostalgic, as soon as Im ready. Stay tuned. -B P.S. This is the 2500th entry on That speaks for itself, I suppose.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain - 1840 Words

Every decision we make comes with a consequence. Throughout the novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, the protagonist, Huckleberry Finn, makes decisions concerning his friend Jim’s escape from slavery. Along with this novel being coming-of-age, Huckleberry is a coming-of-age character. Huckleberry starts off as a boy who is confused and questions the society he lives in. As the novel progresses, so does Huckleberry’s moral development as he distinguishes between right and wrong, makes his own decisions, and understands the world around him. Through irony and his own critiques, Twain develops Huckleberry as a character who puts the interest of others before himself. Like people in today’s world, the environment and people in Huckleberry Finn’s life have made an impact on the kind of person he is in the novel. Huckleberry lives with the Widow Douglas and her sister, Miss Watson. In the beginning of the novel, Huckleberry provides an examp le of what will be a reoccurring theme; hypocrisy. â€Å"Pretty soon I wanted to smoke and asked the widow to let me†¦she said it was a mean practice†¦and she took a snuff too; of course that was all right because she done it herself† (Twain 5). In this quote, the Widow Douglas warns Huckleberry against smoking, but she then proceeds to start smoking herself. By saying this, Twain has employed verbal irony, as the Widow Douglas is doing the exact opposite of what she said to Huckleberry. Matters are confused more, when MissShow MoreRelatedThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain830 Words   |  3 PagesThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is â€Å"A Great American Novel†, because of its complexity and richness. Twain writes dialogue that brings his characters to life. He creates characters with unique voice and helps the reader connect to the book. Anyone who reads it is forced to develop feelings for each character. Even though there is a great amount of controversy over the use of some choices, such as the â€Å"n word†, it makes the book more realistic. In the beginning of the novel Huck,Read MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1103 Words   |  5 PagesDmitri Van Duine Jr English Mr. Nelson November 27th The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Written by Mark Twain filled his stories with many examples of satire as to convey a message while also writing an interesting story. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn revolves around the adventures of a young boy called Huckleberry Finn, who is about thirteen years old. Tom Sawyer is Huck’s best friend and around the same age as Huck. He is onlyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain Essay1055 Words   |  5 PagesZambrano Mrs. Patmor AP Lit-Period 5 28 September 2016 Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1835 Mark Twain embodies realism in almost every aspect of his writing not excluding The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which in he portrays such a lifelike setting that it almost gives you this sense of reality through the point of view of a young man that has an urge for freedom yet struggles to conform to society s norms due to his adolescence. Twain s ability to unmask the true identities of the charactersRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain931 Words   |  4 PagesWolski Mrs. Goska English 2H Period 3 22 October 2014 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Mob mentality is the way an individual’s decisions become influenced by the often unprincipled actions of a crowd. Mark Twain penned The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Twain grew up in America’s southern states during the early 1800’s, a time in which moral confusion erupted within the minds of humans. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn s protagonist is a young boy named Huck who freely travels alongRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1375 Words   |  6 Pagesmention the years spent growing and maturing physically. Teenagers are stuck in an inbetween state where they must learn who they want to become and what they want to be when they grow older. The same is true for Huckleberry Finn, from the book â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn† by Mark Twain. This is a book that was written in a time of great confusion over moral codes and standards. It was a world split in half by two different worlds of people; those who opposed, a nd those who promoted slavery.Read MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain2083 Words   |  9 PagesSatire in Huckleberry Finn In the novel â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn† by Mark Twain, we are told a story about a young boy and his slave companion’s journey down the Mississippi River and all of their encounters with other characters. Twain constructed a beautiful narrative on how young Huck Finn, the protagonist in the story, learns about the world and from other adult characters, how he is shaped into his own person. At the time this book was made however, this novel provided serious socialRead MoreMark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn1575 Words   |  6 Pages Mark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Controversy Mark Twain, born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, is a highly recognizable figure in American literature. Born in Florida, Missouri Mark Twain and his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri where Twain discovered and fell in love with the mighty Mississippi River. The river and his life in Hannibal became his inspiration and guiding light in most of his writing. Although Twain loved the river and did a great deal of traveling, he eventuallyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1005 Words   |  5 Pages In the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn written by Mark Twain in the 19th century is about a young boy named Huck Finn and Jim, a runaway slave who go on an adventure. The two travel on a raft along the Mississippi river creating a bond and making memories. Mark Twain presents Huckleberry Finn as a dynamic character who at first views Jim as property and eventually considers Jim as a friend, showing a change in maturity. In the beginning of the book, Huck Finn clearly sees Jim as nothing more thanRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1335 Words   |  6 Pagesyear The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is placed in the top ten banned books in America. People find the novel to be oppressing and racially insensitive due to its frequent use of the n-word and the portrayal of blacks as a Sambo caricature. However, this goes against Mark Twain’s intent of bringing awareness to the racism in America. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is classified under the genre of satire and is narrated by a fictional character named Huckleberry Finn. The novelRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain810 Words   |  4 PagesBefore Mark Twain started to write two of his most famous novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark was known to use his characters to display his own thoughts and opinions. â€Å"This device allowed him to s ay just about anything he wanted, provided he could convincingly claim he was simply reporting what others had said.† (Twain, 1283). Mark Twain used this process to be a foundation of his lectures, by manipulating his popularly with his readers. During the story

Friday, May 8, 2020

Galileo Galilei And The Modern Experimental Method

Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564. â€Å"His father, Vincenzio Galilei, was a musician whose originality and polemic talents fomented a revolution uniting practice and theory in music much as Galileo was to unite them in science.†I Galileo is credited with establishing the modern experimental method in a time when most progress made by scientists and thinkers was based on hypotheses alone. He began the practice of testing scientific theories by preforming experiments and observing the results. Receiving his early education at a monastery near Florence, in 1581 Galileo entered the University of Pisa to study medicine, later devoting himself to mathematics. II Unfortunately, he would not have the finances required to†¦show more content†¦However, through his experiments he did eventually prove that all objects fall at the same rate, regardless of weight. From 1602 to 1609 Galileo continued to study speeds of falling objects, including pendulums. He studied these objects as they moved in arcs and along inclines and developed the law of uniform acceleration, which would later help Isaac Newton derive the law of gravity.VIII Overtime, Galileo would contribute many works and discoveries to the field of science, and is often referred to as the â€Å"Father of Modern Science† because of this. In 1593, Galileo invented an early thermometer, which became one of the first instruments for measuring used in science. It was crude and worked by having a pocket of air that expanded or contracted based on the temperature which, in turn, moved a column of water up or down.IX Later in 1609, he made improvements on Hans Lippershey’s telescope, which landed him a lifetime appointment to the University of Venice.X Using this improved telescope, Galileo made new discoveries about the heavenly bodies of our solar system and galaxy. In 1610 he observed that Venus went through light and dark phases much like our moon, and concluded that this was because Venus also reflected the Sun’s light. Looking at the Sun itself, he discovered that it had dark spots and that these sunspots changed in positionShow MoreRelatedGalileo1113 Words   |  5 PagesGalileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was considered the central figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. His role in the history of science was a critical one. He revolutionized the way in which science was conducted, and performed experiments to test his ideas, which led him to be regarded as the father of experimental science. Galileo was born on February 15th, 1564 in Pisa, and was the oldest of seven children. His father, Vincenzo Galilei was a famous composer, lutenist, and musicRead MorePhilosophical Think Thanks Of The Scientific Revolution993 Words   |  4 PagesScientific Revolution Despite of the observational, experimental, mathematical, and mechanical principles used to gather information, Isaac Newton was the greatest contributor to the Scientific Revolution, although there were a few predecessors like Galileo Galilei. Galileo gathered valuable information through observations and experimentation; throughout the Renaissance, society had a broader knowledge base on Newtonian Science, the scientific method, rational thinking, calculus, and the universe. NewtonRead MoreEssay about Human Beings and Nature: The Scientific Revolution1689 Words   |  7 Pagesenabled intellectual, economical, and social advances seen in the modern world. The Scientific Revolution which included the development of scientific attitudes and skepticism of old views on nature and humanity was a slow process that spanned over a two century period. During the Scientific Revolution, scientific knowledge enabled humans to control nature in order to improve society. With leaders such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, and Rene Descartes, the ScientificRead MoreWhat Is Science and Where Did It Come From?928 Words   |  4 Pagesage of Greece and Rome. Throughout the scientific revolution, the medieval scientific philosophy was abandoned in favor and improved methods proposed by different men. Finally, we are introduced to scientists of mathematicians, astronomers, and philosophers. Sir Francis Bacon, Galileo, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton are the famous people in the scientific method. The scientific revolution proves that science is a source for the growth of knowledge. The history of science manifests the chainRead MoreThe Impact of Scientific Revolution on Physics as an Independent Field of Study1214 Words   |  5 Pagesquite accurately what took place in the scientific community following the sixteenth century. During the scientific revolution, medieval scientific philosophy was abandoned in favor of the new methods proposed by Bacon, Galileo, Descartes, and Newton; the importance of experimentation to the scientific method was reaffirmed; the importance of God to science was for the most part invalidated, and the pursuit of science itself (rather than philosophy) gained validity on its own terms. The change toRead MoreEssay about Baroque Period (1600-1750) General Background890 Words   |  4 PagesEurope. However, tremendous scientific, philosophical, and artistic accomplishments that constitute the practical foundation of modern civilization flourished side by side with continual warfare, political instability, and religious fervor, bordering on fanaticism. Some of the most significant events of this period are: †¢The Scientific Revolution: A scientific method of inquiry and the separation of science and philosophy from religious dogma were established. Science and mathematics influencenearlyRead MoreThe Scientific Revolution Essay1165 Words   |  5 Pagesimportance of work such as Brahes when he said, If I have seen farther [than those before me], it is because I have stood on the shoulders of Giants [text]. Brahes observations led to great discoveries by those who used his data and observation methods. One such person was his student, Johannes Kepler. The text tells us that Kepler, who was trained for the Lutheran ministry, believed that the universe was built on mystical mathematical relationships and a musical harmony of the heavenly bodiesRead MoreEssay about Galileo Galilei2120 Words   |  9 PagesGalileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564 and was named after his ancestor Galileo Bonaiuti who was a physician, professor, and politician. His parents were Gi ulia Ammannati and Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist, composer, and music theorist. He was the first born of six children of which three of his five siblings survived infancy. He started his education at the young age of 8 at the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa, which brought a close connection to the Christian religionRead MoreThere have been many historical phases throughout time and each one of them has been important in1000 Words   |  4 Pagesconsisted of one absolute monarch, and constitutionalism, which gave decision making to a group of people. Also during the earlier 1600s, scientific method began to flourish, changing the way people thought forever. These three examples are only a few of the many events that have occurred throughout the centuries, but they have significantly altered the modern day way of life. During the reign of King Louis XIV, which spanned from 1643 to 1715, absolutism thrived in France. Louis XIV was a strongRead MoreGalileo Galilei, Astronomer/Mathematician5105 Words   |  21 PagesGalileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 Ââ€" Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. His achievements include improving the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, the first law of motion, and supporting Copernicanism effectively. He has been referred to as the father of modern astronomy, as the father of modern physics, and as father of science. His experimental work

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Influence of the Enlightenment Free Essays

The â€Å"Century of Light,† otherwise known as the Enlightenment brought forth a strong emphasis on Reason and Knowledge. One product of the Enlightenment is the ideas and thoughts of Condorcet. Condorcet’s Sketch for a Historical Picture of The Progress of the Human Mind is brought on by his strong belief in the Perfectibility of Humanity. We will write a custom essay sample on Influence of the Enlightenment or any similar topic only for you Order Now In rational order there are certain principals and laws that the cosmos works under, in rational order there is no change. But Condorcet says that change is progress, and through progress, Humanity can be improved. According to Condorcet, the perfection of Mankind is attainable and for that reason he is impelled to reach it. According to Condorcet and the beliefs of the Enlightenment, Reason, is innate in everyone. It is just a matter of using Education to bring it out to consciousness. Condorcet firmly believes that with proper education, a man can â€Å"judge his own and other men’s actions according to his own lights†. (The Tenth Stage, Pg. 182) With reason, a man will also be able to recognize his rights and the power he has with them. He wants that a man will â€Å"not be in a state of blind dependence† (The Tenth Stage, Pg. 182). But one must keep in mind that it is not the goal of education to create a smart-aleck so to speak, but a human being that is capable of Autonomy. And even then, not Autonomy of thought but rather Autonomy of Judgment: â€Å"How one should act†. When a man reaches this state, he is enlightened. He is then a responsible and respectable citizen of society and thus, perfect. To Condorcet, it is simply a matter of proper education that is necessary for such outcomes. Equality is another ideal that Condorcet mentions. Believing in the improvement of society, he questions the beginning of prejudices and divisions within the society, â€Å"are these part of civilization itself, or are they due to the present imperfections of the social art?† (The Tenth Stage, Pg. 174) Condorcet believes that we can progress beyond these imperfections and not only have equality among men, but extend this equality with, â€Å"the complete annihilation†¦between the sexes† (The Tenth Stage, Pg. 193). According to Condorcet, we must reach for equality until mankind is able â€Å"to understand his rights and to exercise them in accordance with his conscience and his creed† (The Tenth Stage, Pg. 174). With this equality Condorcet foresees a society in which pain and misery will not be the norm, but rather the exception to humanity. But to be enlightened is not the sole goal of Europe, for how can a perfect society be reached if so many others are still struggling to find the â€Å"light†? This is why Condorcet tells us in his publication, that it is the job of those that are enlightened to shed light to the others. Foreign countries are referred to as â€Å"obstacles [impeding] this revolution† (the Tenth Stage, Pg. 175). Therefore, the final step in reaching perfection would be to colonize and educate the ‘savages’ so that Perfection of Mankind may be finally reached. Colonization is imperative in the eyes of Condorcet, but not for any personal or financial gain. Because the Europeans have ‘found the light’ it seems irrelevant for the other countries of the world to go through trial and error to reach this same level of enlightenment. Instead, colonization should take place and the ‘savages’ should be transformed from the ‘conquered’ into those in ‘tutelage’. In this way, the perfection of Humanity is speeded forward towards completion. How to cite Influence of the Enlightenment, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Merchant of Venice Is Shylock a villain or a victim who deserves our sympathy Essay Example

The Merchant of Venice: Is Shylock a villain or a victim who deserves our sympathy Essay The Holocaust was a period of time from the late 1930s to the middle 1940s where Germany, who had just lost the war, decided to try to make Germany pure, and in doing so, exterminated 6 million Jews. Their idea of a perfect person was one who had blonde hair and blue eyes. However, the hatred and anti-semitism towards the Jews didnt start here. It started a long time back, around the time of the 11th century. Near the end of the 11th century, the Christian church taught its followers that usury was morally wrong, and that Christians were forbidden from doing so. Jews, not included in that rule, but barred from most other professions, turned towards usury as a way of earning money. The Christian church, a lot different to what it is today, taught that Jews should be despised for their rejection of Jesus, to do with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ on the cross. The persecution of the Jews was at an early stage when Christians, after being influenced by the Church, spread lies about Jews, saying that they killed Christian children during Passover, and used the blood to make unleavened bread, which in its own way was morally wrong, and something Jesus did not teach to his followers. We will write a custom essay sample on The Merchant of Venice: Is Shylock a villain or a victim who deserves our sympathy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Merchant of Venice: Is Shylock a villain or a victim who deserves our sympathy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Merchant of Venice: Is Shylock a villain or a victim who deserves our sympathy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The term blood libel led to such travesties as the mass-suicide of Jews in York in 1190, and many anti-Jewish riots during the 12th century Crusades. After several kings had imposed heavy taxes on Jews, probably because they were Jewish firstly, and secondly to increase Royal Revenue, Edward I was the king who would get rid of most of the Jews who lived in England, in 1190, and those who remained were forced to wear a badge of identification from 1220 (similar to the time spent in the ghettoes during the Holocaust). The opportunity to be anti-semetic (towards Jews) was rarely let by, as during the 14th century, as Europe was gripped with fear due to the Black Death, Jews were blamed for these deaths because they poisoned wells because as the argument goes the superior hygiene of the Jews, along with their better diet, meant they were less like to catch the disease, and therefore did this out of hate, a ludicrous theory. Even during the period of the 14th to 17th centuries, when Jews were largely absent, anti-Jews stereotypes were created by the church. You can see a major difference from the Church now, to the church only 400 years ago Two or three years before the first showing of The Merchant of Venice, a controversial event happened, possibly bigger than any other of the events I have noted in this introduction, bar perhaps the Holocaust or the mass-suicide in York in 1190. A Portuguese Jew, Dr Rodrigo (or Ruy) Lopez, who had converted to Christianity already, was accused of trying to poison Queen Elizabeth. The trial was notable for the amount of anti-semitism in it, even the judge, supposed to be impartial, called him that vile Jew, and, despite Queen Elizabeth herself trying to stop the execution, Lopez was hung in June 1594. Venice, however, was a much safer place to be in if you were a Jew. Their strict, impartial laws gave foreign traders and people the confidence that they would be treated as equally as possibly. Unlike many other Christian countries, Venice did not accept the belief that Jews should be persecuted or hounded, and gave them certain legal right, at a monetary cost however. The life of a Jew in Venice was a nice one. They had been allocated a district, the Ghetto Nuevo (new iron foundry) where they could run what happened in that certain section of Venice. However, there were drawbacks to this. They had to be locked up in the ghetto at night and on Christian holidays, and were obliged to brick up any windows facing outside of the ghetto. Jews were also made to wear a yellow spot, or when covered, a yellow hat or turban, to identify themselves. This reminds us of the Star of David worn on the arms of the Jews during the Holocaust. However, during Shakespeares time, most of these restrictions were lifted, and Venice had the Jews to thank for making them a more reputable place, for reasons such as learning, money-lending for the poor, and for bringing a great deal of trade to the city Shylock: Villain or Victim? In Act 1, Scene 3, we get our first introductions of Shylock, a money-lending Jew, currently living in Venice. He seems to be a good person when discussing the loan with Bassanio, showing a peaceful kind of man in him, and complimenting Antonio, although his compliment was a sarcastic one, Bassanio might not have got this. Shylock explains that his interpretation of a good man in Antonio was that he had enough money to repay the loan, although is aware of the doubts concerning his finances. He comments on how he has squandered his money somewhat, but, despite all this, he is still rich enough to pay back the bond. He feels reassured about getting his money back, but when Bassanio asks to dine with him, he refuses, because he knows there will be pork there, and Jews are forbidden to eat pork. When Antonio comes in however, his attitude changes a bit, and, talking to the audience, he sounds his displeasure towards Antonio, not only for being a Christian, but for lending money without interest, and therefore making his business suffer. He thinks about the bond, and notes that he cant raise the funds all by himself, but is willing to bring someone else in, Tubal, to complete it, to make it seem he is going the extra mile of sorts to get the money Bassanio needs. He questions Bassanio with Me thoughts you said you neither lend nore borrow / upon advantage, showing a witty and clever side. He explains his motive for usury with a religious example, with the lines When Jacob grazed his uncle Labans sheep This Jacob from our holy Abraham was, As his wise mother wrought in his behalf, The third possessor; ay, he was the third. Antonio questions Was this inserted to make interest good? Or is your gold and silver ewes and rams? Shylock says that he cannot tell, because he makes the money bred as fast, meaning that his money increases all the time due to the interest. From all that I have written so far, he seems to be a clever person. Shylock doesnt react angrily to Antonios comment of him as a devil, one of many times he does this, he simply reminds him of how harshly Antonio has treated him in the past, stating to Antonio that You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog, And spit upon my Jewish gaberdine. Hew now brings into play the fact that the shoes is on the other foot. We now see Shylock twisting Antonio round his finger of sorts, saying all the bad things he has done to him, such as You, that did void your rheum upon my beard And foot me as you spurn a stranger cur and Fair sir, you spit on me on Wednesday last; You spurnd me such a day; another time You calld me a dog, then, although he knows he will, contemplates whether he will actually give him the money, saying What should I say to you? Should I not say Hath a dog money? Is it possible A cur can lend three thousand ducats? , then again reminds him of the horrible things he has done to him, with Fair sir, you spit on me on Wednesday last; You spurnd me such a day; another time You calld me a dog; and for these courtesies, Ill lend you thus much moneys? Antonio makes another threat to Shylock, saying that I am as like to call thee so again, To spit on thee again, to spurn thee too then, about the loan, says If thou wilt lend this money, lend it not As to thy friends; for when did friendship take. Shylock portrays the friend again, with, I would be friends with you and have your love, Forget the shames that you have staind me with, Supply your present wants and take do doit Of usance for my moneys, and youll not hear me: This is kind I offer. Bassanio asks if this were kindness, to which Shylock responds; with a penalty issued in it This kindness will I show. Go with me to a notary, seal me there Your single bond; and, in a merry sport, If you repay me not on such a day, In such a place, such sum or sums as are Expressd in the condition, let the forfeit Be nominated for an equal pound Of your fair flesh, to be cut off and taken In what part of your body pleaseth me. Antonio and Bassanio sign to this, eventually, and the scene ends. After Act 1, Scene 3, Shylock, villain or victim? Victim Shylock, in his next scene, is in his home, with Launcelot, to do with Launcelot leaving his service and joining the service of Bassanio. Shylock warns Launcelot that there will be difference between the two, although one thing wont change, that Launcelot will still sleep and snore and ruin his clothes, just that he will be in worse company. When Launcelot calls for Jessica, Shylock tells him off somewhat for this. Even though he is not really in his service any more. When Jessica comes in, Shylock tells her that he is going to dinner, but it is not a dinner with a friend , more as with a business partner (Antonio, business partner because of the loan he needed to repay), and to keep the house safe by locking it up, showing a sense of safety, but mistrust of Christians, maybe a fair mistrust due to the hatred Christians have shown to Jews in the past. He doesnt really want to go, but he will do, even though he thinks he will have bad luck (ironic because Jessica, an intricate part of his fortunes, escapes from his household, so in some ways he was true). He tells her not to look at the windows, and not To gaze on Christian fools with varnished faces,, also not to let any sounds get in and perhaps tempt her to leave, and tells Launcelot to come with him. From here he seems to show protection, maybe a little too much, for his daughter. He catches Launcelot talking, and asks What says that foot of Hagars offspring, ha? , probably thinking something might be up, which Jessica denies. Shylock berates Launcelot again, saying The patch is kind enough, but a huge feeder; Snail-slow in profit, and he sleeps by day More than the wild-cat: drones hive not with me; Therefore I part with him, and part with him To one that would have him help to waste His borrowd purse. After Act 2, Scene 5, Shylock is a: Victim In this scene, Shylock doesnt have anything to say, but is a main focus of the conversation. , Upon finding out his daughter is missing, and crying (according to The Merchant of Venice film), he gets the Duke to search for her, showing that he wants to find her, and will take great measures to do so. He was too late, which caused him to make a big scene down the streets of Venice. He said the following, after Solanio and Salerio again call him a dog Jew, which is so prominent in the film; My daughter! O my ducats! O my daughter! Fled with a Christian! O my Christian ducats! Justice! The law! My ducats, and my daughter! A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats, Of double ducats, stolen from me by my daughter! And jewels, two stones, two rich and precious stones, Stolen by my daughter! Justice! Find the girl; She hath the stones upon her, and the ducats. This could be seen as the beginning of Shylocks transformation into a villain, as he is showing more care about money than his daughter, which is morally wrong. After Act 2, Scene 8, Shylock is a: Victim, but nearer to villain than before In Act 3, Scene 1, set in a street in Venice, Solanio and Salerio are confronted by a rather angry Shylock, who accuses them of knowing about the plan to take Jessica away. Salerio and Solanio admit to this, but say that And Shylock, for his own part, knew the bird was fledged; and then it is the complexion of them all to leave the dam. This means that Shylock knew that Jessica was ready and fully fledged, and ready to leave the house and make her own decisions. Shylock damns his daughter, not a very nice thing to do, and also notes that his deal with Antonio was a bad one, due to the fact Antonio is in financial trouble, but says that he must pay the bond, or else the consequences will be felt (pound of flesh off Antonio). He makes his big, sympathetic speech in this scene. He lists all the things he has suffered, although gaining an Elizabethan audiences disrespect with the use of the word Revenge. This is his speech, probably the most important one he makes; I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? Fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? A modern day audience would feel sympathy, but back then, this would be more comedic, and respect and sympathy would be lost. Upon hearing that they have not found his daughter, Shylock has a whine, complaining about how he is the only one to have suffered, although this is completely untrue, and a very selfish thing to say. He also says, distastefully; I would my daughter were dead at my foot, and the jewels in her ear! Would she were hearsed at my foot, and the ducats in her coffin! , meaning that he wishes his daughter were dead, and the ducats be in her coffin. In my opinion, this completes the transformation to a villain for Shylock. Tubal notes that other have bad luck, including Antonio, which immediately puts a smile on Shylocks face. When he hears that he is in financial trouble, he is happy, but then gets a bit angry at hearing that Jessica traded the ring to a man, for a monkey, explaining that his (deceased) wife, Leah, gave it to him, and that he would not have given it away for anything. He is more complimentary at the end to Tubal, because he brought the news of Antonios sudden downfall in riches After Act 3, Scene 1, Shylock is a: Villain This scene is set in a jail (note that the Narrator called Shylock the Jew). Shylock seems to be only interested in revenge, and not in the bond, due to everything he claims Antonio has done to him. Antonio makes a soft, sympathetic plea for himself, making Shylock look more merciless than he already is. He forces onto them the agreement he has from the bond, and using the insults he has been suffering against Antonio, says But since I am a dog, beware my fangs. Shylock has no wish to listen to Antonios reasonings as he is fuelled only by revenge. After Act 3, Scene 3, Shylock is a: Villain This scene, one of the most important in the play, is in the Court of Justice, where Shylock wishes to exact his revenge. He says that by our holy Sabbath have I sworn To Have the due and foreit of my bond. He tells the court that they must wonder why he wouldnt want money over A weight of carrion flesh, but that he wont answer those thoughts. He notes that some men have strange reactions for strange things, his case being exacting revenge on Antonio, using examples such as Some men there are love not a gaping pig, Some, that are mad if they behold a cat; And others, when the bagpipe sings I the nose, Cannot contain their urine: for affection,. He tells the Duke that he cant give reasons for his desire for revenge, apart from his obvious hatred of Antonio. When Bassanio says that This is no answer, thou unfeeling man, To excuse the current of thy cruelty. , Shylock responds with I am not bound to please thee with my answers. Shylock says, after being offered six thousand ducats, that If every ducat in six thousands ducats Were in six parts, and every part a ducat (36,000 ducats), I would not draw them; I would have my bond! , showing that no amount of ducats could sway him. When the Duke questions How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none? , Shylock comes back with What judgement shall I dread, doing no wrong? You have among you many a purchased slave, Which, like your asses and your dogs and mules, You use in abject and in slavish parts, Because you bought them: shall I say to you, Let them be free, marry them to your heirs? Basically, Shylock says that he should not have to hope for any mercy, when the Duke himself has many slaves himself, and therefore Shylock asks whether they should have mercy as well. He asks whether they deserve to get the worst accommodation, why they should be treated badly, why they should have the worst jobs, even though they are human beings like himself and the Duke He says that their reasons are because The slaves are ours, therefore the pound of flesh deserves to be his, and whether he may have the flesh no. When Shylock is asked why he gets his knife out so quickly, he explains it is to get the pound of flesh from Antonio (That bankrupt there! ). When Gratiano gets into a rant and rave about this, Shylock comes back with Till thou canst rail the seal from off my bond, Thou but offendst thy lungs to speak so loud: Repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall To cureless ruil. I stand here for law. Basically, until Gratianos words can remove the seal from his bond, then he is only wasting his breath. When the clerks (Portia and Nerissa) come in, and ask Shylock what his name is, he peacefully does so, saying Shylock is my name. When told that he should be merciful, Shylock asks On what compulsion must I? Tell me that. , asking why should he show mercy, and to give a reason. When given an explanation from Portia, he says that he will accept the consequences of his actions, and that I crave the law, The penalty and forfeit of my bond. When Portia says something backing up Shylocks views on law, he instantly commends her and compliments her, with lines such as A Daniel come to judgement! Yea, a Daniel! O wise young judge, how I do honour thee! and Here tis, most reverend doctor, here it is, but that he has to keep his oath, as it is in heaven, and that he will not go against the heavens, not for Venice. Portia notes that the bond is forfeit, but asks for Shylock to take three times the bond (9,000 ducats), he refuses, once again stamping on his feeling of not letting go of his bond. After another two compliments, he is told he can go ahead with the cutting of the flesh. When asked whether a surgeon is at hand to look after Antonios wounds, Shylocks distasteful response is Is it so nominated in the bond? , and will not do it out of any kindness, as he seems to have none. He makes more note to his hate of Christians, saying that Christians would not be worthy of his daughter, and that he would rather have any relative of Barrabas as a husband. After more compliments, that wouldnt have been viewed greatly by Elizabethan audiences, he finds out that he cant shed a drop of blood, and, instantly, his attitude changes, and he wants the money, but Portia says that this must go ahead. Shylock, nervous now, asks for the money and for him to let go, and is refused, he says that he wishes to be no part of this debate any longer. He knows that in failing, he will lose everything, and says Nay, take my life and all; pardon not that: You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house; you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. , showing that his fortunes are more important than his life, that his life revolves around what he owns. When Portia finally shows mercy, he takes the bond, and leaves. Throughout the play, we see a complete change in the character of Shylock. From the start, he appears to be the victim, who is being mistreated and is living a hard life, however, as the play progresses, Shylock brings upon himself the transformation from victim to villain, and eventually is a fully fledged villain who seems to not want to take any prisoners, however, in the end he loses. Shylock starts off as a victim, but as the play progresses he slowly turns into a villain, and ends up as a villain